Friday, August 29, 2014

Movie Night: SHASTA, CA Hearing on Covert Chemtrail Operation

Staff Writer, Nicole Meyer-Greene
GeoEngineering / Community Forum
__________________________________

Just like Mohave County in Arizona, California residents in Shasta are going to their public officials, explaining what the issues are, and demanding resolution. 

Public hearing July 15th, 2014 Shasta County Air Quality Management Board Discussing GEOENGINEERING CHEMTRAILS R-7.

Source: Youtube 

Thursday, August 28, 2014

Engineered Drought Catastrophe, Target California

Staff Writer, Nicole Meyer-Greene
GeoEngineering / Eco Terrorism
______________________________________

The western US is under an all out climate engineering assault, California most of all. The Weather Makers can shut the hydrological cycle off from the once “golden state” for as long as they wish. Satellite images and NOAA maps shown in this presentation are shocking and revealing to say the least. Whatever one wishes to consider as the agenda of those in power, one conclusion is certain, the drought in California is a direct result of the ongoing climate engineering insanity. Weather warfare is now being waged on the American population.

Source: Geoengineering Watch

CRISSCROSS/PROTON Point Paper

Staff Writer, R. Patrick Chapman
News / Documentation
____________________________________


Documents pertaining to the Crisscross/Proton project.


Source: The Intercept

Magnetic Storm, Fire, STARWATER

Staff Writer, Nathaniel Diaz
Meteorology / Heliosphere
____________________________________


The sun is at rest, but our magnetic shield is a little prickly.

Forest fires are running amok. Sink holes forming in the UK. More tropical development is at hand in the Gulf and Atlantic.

And, volcanoes.

Today's Featured Links:
Brown Dwarf Water: http://news.sciencemag.org/space/2014...
Born Star: http://www.nasa.gov/press/2014/august...
Dead Star: http://www.esa.int/Our_Activities/Spa...
Portugal Forest Fire: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xoOOE...
Durham Sinkhole: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VAN9j...
Iceland Ice Cracks: http://www.weather.com/news/icelandic...

Source: Suspicious Observers

Season II Finale: Another Ferguson Shooting & Failures of the Democratic Party

Staff Writer, DB Holmes
News / Government
_______________________________

In this episode of Breaking the Set, Abby Martin comments on yet another shooting in Ferguson, MO, involving a local resident who was shot in the head by an unknown person, yet after police confiscated the bullet there has been no follow-up or investigation into who shot her. Abby then reports on the latest violence in Gaza, and speaks with Seattle city council member Kshama Sawant about her letter to the Obama administration denouncing Israel’s ongoing siege and blockade of Gaza. BTS wraps up the show - an interview with author and journalist Nafeez Ahmed, discussing his four-part investigation into the Pentagon’s mass social science project called The Minerva Research Initiative, as well as his latest book ‘Zero Point’.

Source: Breaking the Set

Wednesday, August 27, 2014

Print Less but Transfer More Without Resolving the Issues

Staff Writer, DL Mullan
Foreign Affairs / Economics
__________________________________

In the article, "Print Less but Transfer More: Why Central Banks Should Give Money Directly to the People" by Mark Blyth and Eric Lonergan, the Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) is getting the understanding that the world is fed up.

In order to keep the mobs with pitchforks from becoming a reality to the top 1%, the CFR proposes to pay us all off. Well, only the bottom 80% and if you pay taxes. So some of the mob will be satiated. 

This rumored payoff does not solve fundamental issues like the failed Trickle Down Economics that have befallen the lower 90%, the constant foreign wars, race wars, and class wars to keep the muddled masses from reading the CFR website. Nor, does the payout solve the issues of corporate greed, corporate tax dodging, and corporate personhood that has caused much of these economic situations. 

The idea that some cash can make things all better shows how stupid think tanks are. If you do not resolve what caused the economic failures in the first place, a hand full of cash is only going to stop the impending pitchforks for a little while. 

Here's a clue, smartypants: why don't you ask us? 

I for one have a load of general resolutions for you to make happen before the coming New Year:
  • create jobs like FDR did; The New Deal
  • close tax loopholes and safe harbors for corporations
  • no more subsidizing corporations like agriculture or oil, unless it is small farmers, organic farmers, and new energy invention creators
  • stop trying to control us
  • stop militarizing everything 
  • clean up the Earth without using Agenda 21
  • make the bottom 50% not owe any taxes, except payroll taxes
  • get rid of the Federal Reserve
  • create money like the Constitution requires: by Congress and the Treasury Dept
  • get rid of the Emergency War Powers Act and all central banking and related legislative acts
  • eliminate corporate personhood
  • return to American economics: see, Lyndon LaRouche
  • have money backed by Silver and Gold, and any other national asset
  • no more fabricated wars
  • no more government or megacorporate media 
  • retirees and disabled Americans on Social Security should get a 10% increase because they have been cheated cost of living increases for several years; no one on these programs should live in poverty if they have paid into the system
and the last one: get your heads out of your asses already.

The United States needs to return all illegal minors and adults to their respective countries. We need to get money and influence peddling out of politics. We need to stop dismantling our Constitution and Bill of Rights in lieu of corporate governance, confederations and unions. We need to arrest on treason charges anyone who is pushing United Nations' programs.

In addition, we need to get rid of the Council on Foreign Relations and other idiot organizations that put money in their pockets first with little realization that the rest of us have pitchforks until we are about to use them.

We are tired and we are pissed the hell off. 

Our economic recessions and depressions are done on purpose. Shush, I'm talking here. Americans are not stupid. We're disgruntled. 

We want our country back and we want treasonous terrorists out. CFR and your elitist cronies, that would be you. You feel me? Go make hell on Earth somewhere else. We're not interested.

While I have your attention, be sure to watch: Beware, Fellow Plutocrats, The Pitchforks Are Coming

Oh, yes, they are. 




Tuesday, August 26, 2014

Last Week Tonight with John Oliver: Wage Gap

Staff Writer, DB Holmes
Wages / Government
________________________________


John Oliver explores America's wage gap between men and women and proposes a possible solution. Note: Solution proposed is 100% sarcastic.

Source:  Last Week Tonight with John Oliver

Monday, August 25, 2014

Nicolas of Cusa

Staff Writer, DL Mullan
History / Education
____________________________________

A lecture produced by the LaRouche Science section about this historical, scientific, and religious figure.

Nicholas of Cusa (born in 1401 in Bernkastel-Kues, Germany – died August 11, 1464 in Todi) was a German cardinal of the Catholic Church, a philosopher, jurist, mathematician, and astronomer. He is also referred to as Nicolaus Cusanus and Nicholas of Kues.   Nicholas is best known for his philosophy, encapsulated in two famous phrases: The “coincidence of opposites,” meaning that the many entities and the diversity of the finite world coincide with the oneness of the infinite realm of God; and “of learned ignorance,” the idea that the key to experiencing mystic unity with God through intellectual intuition is an awareness that a complete conceptual understanding of God is impossible and can only be acquired in a limited fashion. His thought exhibited strong elements of mysticism and Platonism within the framework of Christian faith.

Nicholas was instrumental in developing the concept of “panentheism,” the idea that God is present in all things and yet transcends all things. His fundamental precept, “coincidentia oppositorum” (the "coincidence of opposites"), was a key concept of the Reformation and replaced the medieval belief that God was a separate entity from the material world. Nicholas of Cusa is seen as one of the transitional thinkers from the Medieval to the modern world. Nicholas of Cusa also conducted the first modern biological experiment, on the growth of plants, and made important contributions to the field of mathematics by developing concepts of the infinitesimal and of relative motion.

Source: LaRouche Science , New World Encyclopedia

Big Earthquakes, Big Solar Flare

Staff Writer, Nathaniel Diaz
Meteorology / Heliosphere
_________________________________


TODAY'S FEATURED LINKS:
BOM Data: http://www.theaustralian.com.au/natio...
Telegraph Article: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/earth/envi...
India Landslide: http://www.timesnow.tv/Pune-landslide...
Cali Quake on Cam: http://www.theguardian.com/world/vide...

Source: Suspicious Observers

Illegal Cop Weapons, the Disease Infecting Journalism, Bush's Torture, and more...

Staff Writer, DB Holmes
News / Comedy
______________________________

The Redacted Team examines police militarization and how Time, Inc. rates its writers. George W. Bush recalls his torturing days, John F. O'Donnell recalls his history with Hillary Clinton, and Sam Sacks gets a face full of tear gas.

Source: Redacted Tonight

Sunday, August 24, 2014

James Brown – Get On Up, Michael Jackson, Tupac + Death with Daryl Brown

Staff Writer, DB Holmes
News / Entertainment
_________________________________

James Brown and the truth that Get On Up doesn’t give you, plus the relationship between Brown and Michael Jackson, and conspiracies that worked against the Godfather of Soul are discussed with Brown’s son, Daryl Brown. We look at how hip hop has become a music of genocide, the media misconceptions of his father’s drug use, and Brown’s psychic visions and thoughts on death, plus discuss conspiracies around the deaths of Paul Walker and Robin Williams in this uncensored Buzzsaw interview hosted by Sean Stone.

Source: Buzzsaw

Alien Encounters, Enlightenment and World Peace with Princess Kaoru Nakamaru

Staff Writer, DB Holmes
News / Government
______________________________________

Alien encounters and the spiritual consciousness of extraterrestrials that can be unlocked as a potential tool to initiate world peace on Earth is discussed with author and activist, Kaoru Nakamaru. Cleansing the soul, interacting with heads of state, and unlocking the higher frequencies of awareness that can liberate the minds and hearts of humanity are all explored in this Buzzsaw interview hosted by Sean Stone.

Source: Buzzsaw

Friday, August 22, 2014

Movie Night: Yuri Bezmenov: Deception Was My Job

Staff Writer, DB Holmes
History / Documentary
____________________________

This is G. Edward Griffin's shocking video interview, Soviet Subversion of the Free-World Press (1984), where he interviews ex-KGB officer and Soviet defector Yuri Bezmenov who decided to openly reveal KGB's subversive tactics against western society as a whole.

Bezmenov explains how Jewish Marxist ideology is destabilizing the economy and purposefully pushing the U.S. into numerous crises so that a "Big Brother" tyranny can be put into place in Washington, how most Americans don't even realize that they are under attack, and that normal parliamentary procedures will not alter the federal government's direction.

He then explains how Marxist leaders use informers to make lists of anti-Communist and other politically incorrect people who they want to execute once they - actually a Jewish oligarchy - come to power. The oligarch's secret lists include "civil rights" activists and idealistically-minded "useful idiot" leftists as well.

Bezmenov provides several real world examples of how Marxist leaders even execute and/or imprison each other. Also he explains how American embassy employees were known to betray Soviets attempting to defect, how there existed a "triangle of hate" in the Soviet government, why he realized that Marxism-Leninism was a murderous doctrine, and how the CIA ignored (or didn't care) about Communist subversion.

He also mentions that revolutions throughout history are never the result of a majority movement, but of a small dedicated and highly-organized group who seize power, whether for good or bad. Next he explains how the American mass media spread lies about life in the Soviet Union.

Bezmenov also explains how the LOOK magazine article falsely claimed that the Russian people were proud of their victory in the Second World War, where in reality the Judeo-Bolshevik-Communist-Marxist government was happy that Hitler had been defeated so that they could remain in power.

Find out how the KGB utilized various individuals to undermine the Western society in its morals and values.


Source: Youtube

Thursday, August 21, 2014

Armed Police Raided Church with Children for Maalox

Staff Writer, DL Mullan
News / Ferguson, MO
________________________________

No warrant. No can do, but the Ferguson Police sure believe they do not need a search warrant.


#Ferguson police raid local church that was allowing the Dream Defenders and other peaceful protesters a safe space. The armed police entered Greater St. Mark Family Church with children present and took Maalox, which the protesters were using to help people who had been attacked by tear gas and pepper spray. Hear this interview with leader Phillip Agnew by Rev. Dr. Pamela Lightsey. — with Phillip Agnew and Pamela Lightsey.
Isn't about time we got our country back?


Source: Facebook

Military Bans More News Agencies from their Personnel

Staff Writer, R. Patrick Chapman
Military / Bans 
___________________________________

Dear Joint Chiefs of Staff:

You do realize that once a document hits the news stand that it's not actually "classified" anymore, don't you?

You can ban as many publications as you want to but the more you make something off limits, the more people find a way of reading it. 

Besides American tax money goes to create "classified" documents. So every American has the right to not only read this aforementioned information, but actually own a copy of them. Hello.

And, for all intents and purposes if you weren't doing anything against the Constitution in the first place, there would be need for leaking classified documents. 

Chew on that one.


Sources: The Intercept

Complexification and Crapification, Keiser Report 643

Staff Writer, DB Holmes
Finance / Banking
____________________________________

In this episode of the Keiser Report, Max Keiser and Stacy Herbert imagine a 3D-printed lawyer glut and bankers having their way with subprime mortgage bonds and then dumping them on unsuspecting pension funds. In the second half, Max interviews Jim Rickards, author of “Currency Wars” and “The Death of Money,” about the financial environment looking a whole lot like 1987 when markets tumbled by 22 percent in a day. They also discuss whether San Diego leveraging up on risk, or Japan running out of steam, could be the trigger for the big sell-off.

Source: Keiser Report

Wednesday, August 20, 2014

The Effect of Folic Acid and B12 on Depression: Twelve Case Studies

Staff Writer, DL Mullan
Medicine / Homeopathy 
_____________________________________

The Effect of Folic Acid and B12 on Depression: Twelve Case Studies 
Abstract
Nutrition plays a vital role in human behavior not just in terms of manifest physical processes but, in particular, nutrition has an impact on individual cognitive and emotional processing. Lack of nutrition or, more specifically, the lack of proper nutrition, is thought to have an adverse effect on mood. The following 12 case studies will explore to what extent incorporating a nutritional supplement into a client’s diet impacts the symptoms of persons afflicted with depression. Results from pretest/posttest depression scores using the Beck Depression Inventory-II or the Symptom Checklist-90- Revised will be reported.

Source: Orthomolecular Medicine

The Sphinx, Gobekli Tepe, Ancient Catastrophes - Dr. Robert Schoch

Staff Writer, DL Mullan
Archeology / Geology
_____________________________


What if the history of the Spinx was not accurate? What if it was much older than others have led us to believe? 

Here's an interesting talk about how geology plays apart in discovering history.


Source: Suspicious Observers

Magnetic Instability, Storm Collision?

Staff Writer, Nathaniel Diaz
Meteorology / Heliosphere
_______________________________


It is going to be quieter around Arizona today. Tomorrow has more potential for storms, but without energy from a filament eruption or solar flare, the weather should be calm.

TODAY'S FEATURED LINKS:
Taiwan Gorge: http://www.bbc.com/news/science-envir...
Mars Life Potential: http://online.liebertpub.com/doi/full...
Ice: http://nsidc.org/arcticseaicenews/
Climate Report: http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/sotc/global
Riometers: http://www.irf.se//Observatory/?link=...

Source: Suspicious Observers

Gavin McInnes Goes #OffTheGrid

Staff Writer, DB Holmes
News / Government
__________________________________

What begins as a gentlemanly discussion of Washington football quickly becomes a war of words between the Vice Magazine and StreetCarnage.com co-founder, Gavin McInnes, and the Governor Jesse "The Body" Ventura. Who will win this debate over a team name many have found racist? Do you think Washington needs to change their NFL name? Tell Jesse at http://www.ora.tv/offthegrid/askjesse.
Grab the popcorn-- Gavin McInnes is back in the ring for Round Two with Jesse "The Body" Ventura! Today, the Governor and the Vice Magazine and StreetCarnage.com co-founder spar on what should be done about illegal immigration, if teenagers should work manual labor, and just about everything in between. Got a question for the Governor? Tweet him @GovJVentura.

Source: Off the Grid

Tuesday, August 19, 2014

The Psychological Significance of Chaos and Disorder

Staff Writer, DL Mullan
Psychology / Sociology

____________________________________

What is chaos? What is order? This treatise from the Canberra Jung Society Newsletter Autumn 2011 explains our subconscious need for disorder and the conscious need for archetypes of order:
This article starts with disorder in psychology and then looks at our preconceptions about order, which primarily come from our religious mythology. This of course, relies on us recognising that mythic thought is not dead in Western society; we are still influenced by the stories of the past, except that they have come to seem like common sense. Our primary myth is that we have no myths, only other people,somewhere else, or at sometime in the past actually have them, we supposedly have outgrown them or lost them. Some think this is good, some think it is bad, but the proposition is simply not true. Listen to a politician some day and see how much of what they say depends upon a taken for granted myth, however impoverished, such as the myth of order and the necessity for its imposition. Myth always feels real – otherwise it would not be myth, and would have no effect. From consideration of our main relevant myths we move briefly in to alchemy and then back into psychology.So we have a circle, which contains and expresses the chaos:
This primary substance [the chaos] is round (massa globosa, rotundum), like the world and the world-soul; it is in fact the world-soul and the world-substance in one (Aion CW 9 II: §376).
We dissolve into flux and coagulate into a temporary order, which dissolves again.
To read more: The Psychological Significance of Chaos and Disorder.


Source: Academia.edu

GCHQ Covert Mobile Phones Policy

Staff Writer, DL Mullan
Government / War on Terror
___________________________________


Document for your perusal.


Source: The Intercept

The Grace Commission Report - Revealed IRS Front for Banking Dynasties in 1984

Staff Writer, R. Patrick Chapman
Banking / Government
______________________________________

Another update from the World Bank Whistleblower, Karen Hudes, on the state of banking and historical affairs: 

Reagan's uncut Treasury dollars in the Global Debt Facility are going to replace Federal Reserve Notes before the crash https://s3.amazonaws.com/khudes/UBS+UNCUT.pdf

Source: Karen Hudes

ADEQ Geoengineering / Chemtrails Public Meeting June 25, 2014

Staff Writer, Nicole Meyer-Greene
GeoEngineering / Government
___________________________________

These are citizen videos of the ADEQ Geoengineering / Chemtrail Public Meeting, June 25, 2014 in Kingman, Mohave County, Arizona. Residents are angry that toxic chemicals are being sprayed and no one is willing to put a stop to this illegal activity.

The United Nations under the cover of secrecy and fictitious global warming has been spraying member nations, especially of NATO, with chemicals for Solar Radiation Management. A real program that does more damage to the Earth and the ozone than the Earth's natural climate.

Here are the videos: 

Part 1 of 3

Part 2 of 3

Part 3 of 3

Arizona State Senator Kelli Ward
ADEQ Administrative Council, Sherri Zendri
ADEQ Public Affairs Director, Beth Hager

Since the VDP Gazette staff have witnessed geoengineering spraying in the Greater Phoenix area as well as researched this topic, we support public involvement to collect evidence, protest, and halt all these programs.

See our GeoEngineering page for patents, studies, and reports on this eco-terrorism.


Source: Youtube

CME Impact, Volcano Alert Iceland

Staff Writer, Nathaniel Diaz
Meteorology / Heliosphere
____________________________________


The CME that hit Earth was a bit of a dud. Still the energy ramped up earthquakes and volcanic activity across the globe, not to mention this morning's monsoon outburst. Did that wake you about 6am too?

Fukushima is making more impacts in the Pacific Ocean. Now fish are dying in Alaska. When will the international community finally step in?

A gamma ray burst was taken last night and our sun went back to sleep.

Watch out for more monsoon action tonight and tomorrow. A Flash Fllod Watch has been issued for the Greater Phoenix Ara. Yeah, that means everyone. An inch of rain fell in many areas this morning alone.


TODAY'S FEATURED LINKS:
Fukushima Video [seals]: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O7QNj...
Fukushima Video [polar bears]: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aWSvG...
Monitor Iceland Volcanos: http://en.vedur.is/earthquakes-and-vo...
Solar/Climate Lecture: https://docs.google.com/viewer?srcid=...
Solar Greenland Forcing: http://www.nature.com/ngeo/journal/va...
Solar Tibet Forcing: http://www.clim-past-discuss.net/10/3...

Source: Suspicious Observers

​Ferguson’s Jim Crow Roots, Gaza Myths & Misconceptions, Losing Teeth for Protesting

Staff Writer, DB Holmes
News / Government
__________________________________

Abby Martin remarks on the growing militarization of America’s local police, highlighting a program known as Urban Shield. Dr. Wilmer Leon, professor of political science at Howard University, talks about the historical context of police brutality against minorities in America. Mnar Muhawesh, editor-in-chief of Mint Press News, discusses the evolving situation in Gaza. Kambale Musavuli, spokesperson for Friends of the Congo, reveals an incident involving several individuals being beaten up by bodyguards for the presidents of the DRC and Gambia during the US Africa summit in Washington.

Source: Breaking the Set

Monday, August 18, 2014

Military's Right to Execute Peaceful US Protesters? ATP 3-39.33, Civil Disturbances

Staff Writer, DL Mullan
Government / Military
_______________________________

Take a look. This example is how the US government wants to treat protesters in America: 

ATP 3-39.33 provides discussion and techniques about civil disturbances and crowd control operations that occur in the continental United States (CONUS) and outside the continental United States (OCONUS). United States (U.S.) forces deploy in support of unified action, overseas contingency operations, and humanitarian assistance worldwide. During these operations, U.S. forces are often faced with unruly and violent crowds who have the intent of disrupting peace and the ability of U.S. forces to maintain peace. Worldwide instability coupled with U.S. military participation in unified-action, peacekeeping, and related operations require that U.S. forces have access to the most current doctrine and techniques that are necessary to quell riots and restore public order.



CIVIL UNREST

1-1. Demonstrations, public disorder, and riots happen for a number of reasons. Some of these reasons are economic hardships, social injustices, ethnic differences (leading to oppression), objections to world organizations or certain governments, political grievances, terrorist acts, other man-made disasters, and natural disasters. Civil unrest is when a civil society or a segment of its population is in a disturbed or uneasy state or in turmoil. During a state of civil unrest, an event can be triggered by a single cause or a combination of causes. For example, operations that occurred in the Balkans that involved civil unrest were the result of ethnic hatred, a lack of civil authority, food shortages, a revolution, and religious-based fighting factions.

1-2. Civil unrest may range from simple, nonviolent protests that address specific issues, to events that turn into full-scale riots. Gathering in protest may be a recognized right of any person or group, regardless of where U.S. forces may be operating. In the United States, this fundamental right is protected under the Constitution of the United States, while other countries have various laws that protect the rights of their citizens rights. During unified action, U.S. forces should never violate basic civil or human rights. Most protesters are law-abiding citizens who intend to keep their protests nonviolent, but some protest planners insist that the event involve violence. Often in the media, protesters can gain sympathy for their cause by prompting authorities to take physical action against them. Violence can be the result of demonstrators beginning to conduct unlawful or criminal acts and authorities (who are responsible for the safety and welfare of all) enforcing the laws of the municipality, state, or nation. The level of violence is determined by the willingness of demonstrators to display and voice their opinions in support of their cause and the actions and reactions of the control force on scene.

1-3. Commanders must be aware of the possibility that some individuals or groups within an organized demonstration may intend to cause disruption, incite violence, destroy property, and provoke authorities. The situation and actions of the crowd may dictate control and enforcement options. Agitators and criminal infiltrators within the crowd can lead to the eruption of violence. Inciting a crowd to violence or a greater intensity of violence by using severe enforcement tactics must be avoided.

1-4. Community unrest results in urban conflicts that arise from highly emotional social and economic issues. Economically deprived residents may feel that they are treated unjustly or ignored by people in power and authority. Tensions can build quickly in a community over a variety of issues, such as hunger, poor employment opportunities, inadequate community services, poor housing, and labor issues. Tensions in these areas create the potential for violence. When tensions are high, it takes a small (seemingly minor) incident, rumor, or perceived act of injustice to ignite groups within a crowd to riot and act violently. This is particularly true if community relations with authorities are strained.

1-5. Significant ethnic differences in a community can create an atmosphere of distrust, even hatred. Unrest among ethnic groups competing for jobs, living areas, and sparse essentials can cause an eruption of civil disorder that can lead to full riots. As emotions run high, violence becomes likely.

1-6. Terrorist organizations may infiltrate groups within a demonstrating crowd. These terrorist groups may intend to embarrass their government or other governments. Terrorist infiltrators can be used to provoke crowds as a diversion, as part of a demonstration, or as cover for terrorist acts.
THREAT ANALYSIS AND CROWD ASSESSMENT

2-18. Threat analysis is vital for any military mission. The assessment of crowds requires its own set of questions. These questions should be answered before a crowd assembles or as quickly as possible. In some cases, all the questions may not be answered. The following questions represent a logical way to develop an understanding of the crowd the commander is tasked to control.

Who are they and what is the overarching identity of the crowd? Do they identify themselves as strikers, ethnic groups, religious factions, social protestors, some other group, or even a combination of these? Understanding who they are will indicate what they may do. It may be possible to determine identities and goals from advance assembling instructions, leaflets distributed to bystanders, placards and banners, or chants and songs.

What are their goals? What the group wants to accomplish by assembling could determine the extent to which they can be accommodated once they have assembled. They may only seek recognition for their cause (being seen and heard). If so, this goal is usually easy to accommodate. However, some groups may have more demanding goals, for example the demonstrators in Seattle who sought to stop the World Trade Organization. Goals that cannot be accommodated make confrontation very likely.

What is the composition of the crowd and are there any known factions? Seattle demonstrations against the World Trade Organization were composed of groups that were protesting environmental issues, wages, and child labor laws. Differing goals and the resulting friction were evident between such organizations as the Ruckus Society and the American Federation of Labor-Congress of Industrial Organizations. Factions within a crowd represent threats and opportunities.

What are they capable of doing? Protest groups often claim that they will assemble large numbers of people to produce some disruptive action. However, there is often a difference between the claim and reality. An organization may claim that it can mass a 100,000 people, but in reality can only get 40,000. Organizers exaggerate because they want to boost the morale of their own people and they want the media to report that they have strength in numbers. Studying the past activities of a group may provide indications of what they are capable of doing in the future.

What are their traditional behaviors or cultural repertoires? What people do during protests is not universal. It varies with the group, individual, and the culture. Social protestors and striking unions may carry placards and banners, while other groups may protest in a quiet way. Understanding these behaviors, along with their goals, can be helpful in deciding how to respond.

When and where will they assemble? Every protest organizer has a time and place for assembling and a destination for the crowd to move toward. If the organizer attempts to mobilize large numbers of participants, the time and place for assembling and dispersing must be made known in the instructions. This information may be stated in the mobilization instructions or disseminated by an informal network, such as word of mouth. Such impromptu networks in densely populated areas can enable rapid assembling. Knowing the location is a key to planning for a commander and their staff.

Where will they go? Many crowds have destinations. Organizations may march a specified distance to ensure that their cause gets sufficient attention. Commanders need to know the route to minimize disruptions to the rest of the community. Knowing the route allows LEAs to take such measures as rerouting traffic to prevent congestion caused by protest marches. It is also necessary to provide security along the route to prevent counterdemonstrators from confronting the marchers. This will prevent an even greater problem for the community.

What are the possible targets of violence? Riot participants, in particular, may focus on target facilities, personnel, or objects. There is no set target list for rioters, and it depends on the location and what is in the area. Some common targets include: authority figures (the control force), government facilities, food supply facilities, gun stores, retail stores (especially those with high value items), and symbols of authority or government (such as statues, flags, or signs).

When and where will they disperse? Crowds have a life cycle that includes how they disperse (see chapter 1). Commanders must consider this. It is essential that there be one or more avenues that individuals and groups can use to disperse. These dispersal routes should be clearly marked, visible, and open-ended. There may be a need for U.S. forces to assist the crowd with dispersal. Assistance includes: securing routes, marking routes, and providing or helping arrange transportation.

Are there plans for subsequent gatherings? Organizers may have multiple gatherings planned on different dates or locations. Also, a crowd may disperse for a short time so that participants can take care of personal needs. This could be days or only a few hours.

What is the worst-case scenario? Worst-case scenarios must be recognized, discussed, and planned for, if for nothing else, to avoid them. This could be when an originally peaceful demonstration evolves into a full-blown riot.



LEGAL CONSIDERATIONS

2-3. Commanders must know the legal boundaries, their sources, and how they apply to interacting with civilians in OCONUS and CONUS. The staff judge advocate (SJA) office is able to assist with information as well. The SJA office should be included in planning and involved in any activity with potential legal implications. For civil disturbance missions there are differences in the legal boundaries, and in how U.S. federal forces can be utilized, depending on if the event is within the United States or within a foreign country. The planning and execution for these missions needs to be conducted within those legal parameters.

Continental United States Versus Outside the Continental United States

2-4. For the U.S. Army, conducting civil disturbance missions within the United States. will vary greatly when compared to conducting civil disturbance missions within a foreign country where the U.S. Army is conducting operations. Except as expressly authorized by the Constitution of the United States or by another act of Congress, the Posse Comitatus Act (18 USC 1385) prohibits the use of the Active Army as enforcement officials to execute state or federal law and perform direct law enforcement functions within CONUS. For OCONUS operations, especially when the HN does not have a legitimate government or law
enforcement capabilities, the U.S. Army may have to perform these functions, including responding to civil
disturbances and performing the tactics and techniques discussed in this manual.

2-5. When the U.S. Army is conducting unified land operations within a foreign country, and there is a need for U.S. forces to conduct a civil disturbance mission, there are certain legal considerations that must be made. These considerations include (if applicable): United Nations or non-United Nations mandates, status-of-forces agreements, international laws, HN laws, the civil authorities (if functioning) of the foreign country, and ROE.

2-6. Within CONUS, military operations would fall under the defense support of civil authorities (see ADP 3-28 and ADRP 3-28). Military support to law enforcement is one of two categories: direct and indirect support. When authorized by the Secretary of Defense, federal military forces may provide indirect support to law enforcement agencies; but support is limited to logistical, transportation, and training assistance except when emergency authority applies. State and territorial governors can use state National Guard forces for direct support to civilian law enforcement; however, such use is a temporary expedient and must be in accordance with state laws (see ADP 3-28).

2-7. The Constitution of the United States, laws, regulations, policies, and other legal issues limit the use of federal military personnel in domestic support operations. Any Army involvement in civil disturbance operations involves many legal issues requiring comprehensive legal reviews. However, federal forces are authorized for use in civil disturbance operations under certain circumstances. The following references pertain to the use of federal forces within the United States training manual, , therefore; commanders, staffs, and leaders must be familiar with, and adhere to, the parameters within them—

Insurrection Act (10 USC 333–334).
Posse Comitatus Act (18 USC 1385).
32 CFR, Part 215.
AR 381-10.
DODD 3025.18.
DODI 3025.21.
NGR 500-1.

2-8. The Constitution of the United States provides two exceptions for which the Posse Comitatus Act does not apply. These exceptions are based upon the inherent right of the U.S. government to ensure the preservation of public order and to carrying out governmental operations within its territorial limits by force, if necessary. These two exceptions are—
Emergency authority. A sudden and unexpected civil disturbance, disaster, or calamity may seriously endanger life and property and disrupt normal governmental functions to such an extent that local authorities cannot control the situation. At such times, the federal government may use military force to prevent the loss of life or wanton destruction of property and to restore government functions and public order. In these circumstances, federal military commanders have the authority, in extraordinary emergency circumstances where prior authorization by the President is impossible and duly constituted local authorities are unable to control the situation, to engage temporarily in activities that are necessary to quell large-scale, unexpected civil disturbances (see DODD 3025.18).
Protection of federal property and functions. When the need for the protection of federal property or federal functions exists, and duly constituted local authorities are unable to, or decline to provide adequate protection, federal action, including the use of military forces, is authorized.

2-9. Laws passed by the U.S. congress include four exceptions to the Posse Comitatus Act. With the first three laws discussed below (10 USC 331–333) there is a prerequisite that the President must take personal action, including the issuance of a proclamation calling upon insurgents to disperse and retire peaceably
within a limited time. The four exceptions, based on law are—
10 USC 331. When a state is unable to control domestic violence and they have requested federal assistance, the use of the militia or Armed Forces is authorized.
10 USC 332. When ordinary enforcement means are unworkable due to unlawful obstructions or rebellion against the authority of the United States, use of the militia or Armed Forces is authorized.
10 USC 333. When a state cannot or will not protect the constitutional rights of the citizens, due to domestic violence or conspiracy to hinder execution of State or Federal law, the use of the militia or Armed Forces is authorized.
House Joint Resolution 1292. This resolution directs all departments of the U.S. government, upon request of the Secret Service, to assist in carrying out its statutory duties to protect government officials and major political candidates from physical harm.
Also see: Patriot Act, NDAA.

More details and graphics, nonlethal and lethal responses, and inmate confinement in the 132 page source document.


Source: Public Intelligence

Interview with Karen Hudes; Systemic Bankster Corruption and How the 99% Will Overcome It

Staff Writer, R. Patrick Chapman
Banking / Finance
____________________________________

August 18th, 2014
Broadcast live out of Crescent City, CA
at KFUG 101.1FM and streaming at www.kfugradio.org

Counter Culture Radio host Dr.Dan Schultz interviews
Karen Hudes, J.D. Mrs. Hudes is an economist and lawyer practicing in Bethesda, Maryland, She studied economics at the University of Amsterdam, went to law school at Yale, then went into private practice in securities law, worked for 8 years at the Export Import Bank of the US, and for 21 years (1986-2007) as senior counsel in the legal department of the World Bank.

She established the Non Governmental Organization Committee of the International Law Section of the American Bar Association and the Committee on Multilateralism and the Accountability of International Organizations of the American Branch of the International Law Association.

Currently, she is an activist towards re-establishing rule-of law to many facets of government, locally and globally, and restoring integrity to our system as a whole.

Her personal web site is www.kahudes.net

Source:  Dan Schultz 

Don't Blame Policy on Average Americans, We Don't Have a Voice

Staff Writer, R. Patrick Chapman
Government / Politics
_______________________________

"The right of voting for representation is the primary right by which other rights are protected."
-- Thomas Paine

In the article, Who rules America?, the world gets a preview of what awake Americans have been stating for a long time: private interests and money have infected our government to the point that voters are irrelevant.
The new study, with the jaw-clenching title of "Testing Theories of American Politics: Elites, Interest Groups, and Average Citizens," is forthcoming in the fall 2014 edition of Perspectives on Politics. Its authors, Martin Gilens of Princeton University and Benjamin Page of Northwestern University, examined survey data on 1,779 national policy issues for which they could gauge the preferences of average citizens, economic elites, mass-based interest groups and business-dominated interest groups. They used statistical methods to determine the influence of each of these four groups on policy outcomes, including both policies that are adopted and rejected.

The analysts found that when controlling for the power of economic elites and organized interest groups, the influence of ordinary Americans registers at a "non-significant, near-zero level." The analysts further discovered that rich individuals and business-dominated interest groups dominate the policymaking process. The mass-based interest groups had minimal influence compared to the business-based interest groups.

The study also debunks the notion that the policy preferences of business and the rich reflect the views of common citizens. They found to the contrary that such preferences often sharply diverge and when they do, the economic elites and business interests almost always win and the ordinary Americans lose.

The authors also say that given limitations to tapping into the full power elite in America and their policy preferences, "the real world impact of elites upon public policy may be still greater" than their findings indicate.

Ultimately, Gilens and Page conclude from their work, "economic elites and organized groups representing business interests have substantial independent impacts on U.S. government policy, while average citizens and mass-based interest groups have little or no independent influence."
What the article fails to reconcile is that average Americans do not have the ability to combat elite interests just on the basis of organization.

Average Americans have much more to worry about than organizing for political competition, but that's the point. If voters are unable to feed, clothe, or even house themselves or their families, then they will be unable to rectify the current inequality at the voting booth. 

The elite power structure has seen to the demise of the economy, jobs, healthcare, nutritious food, clean water, viable energy sources, and acceptable air quality. 

And, if you protest, the militarized police force will be sent to squash your every move and mainstream media will call you terrorists. 

This article argues that all Americans have to do is raise funds and buy a politician like George Soros or the Koch brothers. Perhaps we should do more than debase our government any further than it already has been. Maybe, we need to get back to American values.
"... the portrait is excellent in proportion to its being a good likeness,...the legislature ought to be the most exact transcript of the whole society... the faithful echo of the voices of the people."

-- James Wilson, at the Constitutional Convention 
Instead of playing the game of buy influence, America should overturn unconstitutional agendas like Citizens United and implement an old philosophy: equal protection under the law. It's not equal if someone with more money can buy it from others.

Americans are supposed to have equal representation. That is how our system is based. It's what keeps everyone being able to voice their opinion.

Therefore America should halt all buying of influence that is degrading our system and return to what our country was based on.
"The principal difficulty lies, and the greatest care should be employed in constituting this representative assembly. It should be in miniature an exact portrait of the people at large. It should think, feel, reason and act like them. That it may be the interest of the assembly to do strict justice at all times, it should be an equal representation, or, in other words, equal interests among the people should have equal interests in it. Great care should be taken to effect this, and to prevent unfair, partial and corrupt elections."
- John Adams, Thoughts on Government, 1776
Obviously isn't it time for better representation based on the 99% then just the top 1%, don't you? 


Source: The Hill, Fair Vote

Parasite Food Chart, Do You Know What You're Eating?

Staff Writer, Nicole Meyer-Greene
Medicine / Health
__________________________________

Do you know what is in your food?

Parasite Food Chart:
Ascaris lumbricoides, pet roundworm Quercitin (squash & pumpkin, undercooked)
Ascaris megalocephala, pet roundworm D-carnitine (meat of domestic animals, not free-range, organic)
Clonorchis sinensis, human liver fluke Oats, cooked or raw
Dirofilaria, dog heartworm Lactose (milk sugar), chromium
Echinoporyphium recurvatum Cinnamic acid, hippuric acid, (dairy eggs), vitamin D3, copper, vanadium
Echinostoma revolutum (neurological diseases) zein, sorghum (CORN), acetaldehyde (nuts
Eurytrema pancreaticum, pancreatic fluke Lemon and lauric acid, gallic acid preservative
Fasciolopsis buski, human intestinal fluke Raw onion (allyl sulphide, diallyl sulphide, allyl methyl suphide, and other onion-like substances in the lily family
Fasciola Wheat (gluten and gliadin); metacercaria stage, requires lauric acid, food oil
Gastrothylax (causes polycystic kidney disease, Down's syndrome, cystic fibrosis Cinnamic acid (cinnamon)
Macracanthorhynchus BEEF, BANANA, BUTTER, RICE
Onchocerca, filaria roundworm CORN, MANNITOL (sugar) linolenic oil, vitamin D3
Paragonimus, lung fluke LEMON
Plasmodium falciparum, vivax, malariae (malaria) different stages need iron disulfide, wheat lemon, melanin, plantain, ASA, pyrrole, others
Strongyloides, roundworm Potatoes, raw or cooked, linolenic acid (food oil)

 Eliminate parasites by not feeding them in your diet.

Source: Dr. Clark

Lyndon LaRouche's August 15th 2014 Webcast

Staff Writer, R. Patrick Chapman
News / Government
____________________________________


LEAFLET: The New System

The following are remarks from Lyndon LaRouche in discussion with colleagues on Friday, August 15, 2014...

This date brings us to the point that the trans-Atlantic financial system that you are trapped into, no longer functions. You are no longer a prisoner of that system, because there is a new system coming into existence. Responsible, powerful people have acted. So don't waste any more time or effort on worthless things—such as Wall Street and everything it represents. Just get rid of it. It's time to take out the garbage.

Under the new system, the BRICS and allied nations—such as South America, Egypt, and others—those responsible people have discarded the system of market prices. There are now no fixed values; there are only the new values being created. And this new system of values is being run by people who are saying publicly that the old system is all bullshit. In certain layers in the U.S. and elsewhere, there are some indications of comprehension, and although their understanding isn't perfect, they are coming closer to reality. There are responsible people in this business, who understand an approximation of what estimated value must be.

What we are setting up is a new system of market pricing which is independent of all of today's crap, run by responsible, powerful people—that is our club. And we will dump those who are not in our club. We will play loyally with those people who are, but we are saying "no" to the sharpies with all their crazy schemes.

There is a mass movement underway to create a new set of values throughout the system. And the key to that is the Helium-3/fusion science driver, with China in the lead. Russia, India, Egypt, Argentina—just look at the forces in motion. When an institutional source in Washington told us that there is no political figure in the U.S. other than LaRouche with the stature and knowledge to lead the U.S. into this new system, that is absolutely true. The time has come when responsible people around the world have to meet to discuss the scientific principles behind Helium-3 fusion, and how to create a new system of physical economic values.

LaRouche has been at this for a long time. We are the ones who pushed it, and it works— it more than works. Now we can change everything: what was impossible, can now be done. Many don't understand this yet, but they will. What we are creating is complicated, it's new, but it works. We just have to discard all the garbage: Wall Street is a failure, and should simply be discarded. If it vanishes, that will be a blessing, not a problem. Just get rid of Wall Street at all costs—i.e., theirs.

As for Obama, of course he should consult Congress before launching war, as the Constitution requires. But more to the point, he should be impeached immediately. He's a contemptible piece of crap, who is overripe to be removed. What do you want him around for? Don't let him go any further; just throw him out. The time has come for that. He should be politically fried before he does any more damage.

Our great chance is now. The system is bankrupt, and we have to save the United States now—it can't wait. Nothing else will work. And if people want entertainment, they should just go down to Wall Street and have a good, hearty laugh...

Source: LaRouche Support

Earthquake Hits, Proton Spike

Staff Writer, Nathaniel Diaz
Meteorology / Heliosphere
____________________________________

Earthquake Hits, Proton Spike

Our sun has quieted again. Not much activity to begin with however we have seen an upsurge in earthquakes thanks to that last CME.

Arizona saw some of that energy in its returned monsoon last night. Today looks to be just as active.

Jupiter and Venus are converging behind the sun and adding some energetic instability to our planet.

TODAY'S FEATURED LINKS:
Schoch Interview: http://www.irf.se//Observatory/?link=...
Earthquake Warning: http://youtu.be/xkeqXXc-nTs
Coming Cold: http://www.newsmax.com/Newsmax-Tv/glo...
Riometer: http://www.irf.se//Observatory/?link=...

Source: Suspicious Observers

Evil People Have Plans - Killer Robots, ALEC, TPP and more

Staff Writer, DB Holmes 
Comedy / News
__________________________

Lee Camp reveals the various plans of evil people, from organizations destroying democracy to autonomous killing machines. Also covered: hacker Jeremy Hammond, the Trans-Pacific Partnership, big data, Eric Cantor v Dave Brat, the CIA on Twitter, fracking, homeless spikes.

Source: Redacted Tonight

Sunday, August 17, 2014

Beware, Fellow Plutocrats, The Pitchforks Are Coming

Staff Writer, R. Patrick Chapman
Corporations / Economics
_______________________________

Nick Hanauer is a rich guy, an unrepentant capitalist — and he has something to say to his fellow plutocrats: Wake up! Growing inequality is about to push our societies into conditions resembling pre-revolutionary France. Hear his argument about why a dramatic increase in minimum wage could grow the middle class, deliver economic prosperity ... and prevent a revolution.
But will anyone listen?


Source: TED 

Aspartame, It's Safe Because We Said So; No, It's Not

Staff Writer, Nicole Meyer-Greene
Food Safety / Politics
____________________________________

In a damning critique earlier this year, Professor Erik Millstone of Science and Technology Policy Research, University of Sussex, showed how politics and not science rules food safety even in the UK.

His analysis, EFSA on Aspartame, January and December 2013, outlined how the EFSA misinterpreted or ignored data:
This document provides an outline critique of the recent publication by the European Food Safety Authority of its Scientific Opinion on the Re-Evaluation of Aspartame (E 951) as a Food Additive, on 10th December 2013 and an earlier draft assessment issued on 8th January 2013.
The central argument of my critique of the assessments of aspartame provided by EFSA’S Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS), published firstly in January an then in December of 2013, is that the criteria by which the individual studies were interpreted were ‘consistently inconsistent’ and biased against consumer protection. The EFSA Panel opportunistically accepted at face value almost all of the studies suggesting that aspartame is harmless, while entirely discounting every single study indicating that aspartame may be harmful, even though the quality, power and sensitivity of many of the studies that were discounted were markedly superior to those of the contrary studies deemed reliable.
In Tables 1 and 2 below, I provide an analysis of the ways in which the ANS Panel’s reports of January and December 2013 interpreted two main categories of toxicological studies: namely those that did and those that did not appear to indicate that aspartame could be harmful to consumers. They provide estimates of the numbers of studies deemed reliable and unreliable, and the percentage of them that were variously commercially or non-commercially funded.
There are a myriad of studies that more than suggest that aspartame is not safe to consume.

Maybe the EFSA should read the documents coming from its own shores: Parliament is Right: Independent aspartame studies prove it's not safe. 

Or how about these studies:

Health Problem: Brain damage/Cognitive skills disruption/Retardation/Neurochemical changes in the brain/Behavioral and Mood Changes/Problems
  1. Year Published: 1970
    Full Reference: Brain Damage in Infant Mice Following Oral Intake of Glutamate, Aspartate, or Cysteine; Nature 1970;227-609-610
    Funded By: Washington University
    Conclusion/Findings: Irreversible degenerative changes and acute neuronal necrosis
    Hyperlink to Study http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v227/n5258/pdf/227609b0.pdf
  2. Year Published: 2008
    Full Reference: Direct and Indirect Cellular Effects of Aspartame on the Brain. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2008) 62, 451-462; P. Humphries, E. Pretorius, and H. Naude
    Funded By: Not known
    Conclusion/Findings: Excessive aspartame ingestion might cause certain mental disorders, as well as compromised learning and emotional functioning
    Hyperlink to Study: http://www.newmediaexplorer.org/sepp/aspartamebrain.pdf
  3. Year Published: 2007
    Full Reference: Life-Span Exposure to Low Doses of Aspartame Beginning During Prenatal Life Increases Cancer Effects in Rats, Morando Soffritti, Fiorella Belpoggi, Eva Tibaldi, Davide Degli Esposti, Michelina Lauriola; Environmental Health Perspectives, 115(9) Sep 2007; 115:1293-1297. doi:10.1289/ehp.10271. 
    Funded By: Not known
    Conclusion/Findings: Carcinogenicity proven a second time; with effects increased when exposure to aspartame begins during fetal life.
    Hyperlink to Study: http://ehp03.niehs.nih.gov/article/fetchArticle.action?articleURI=info:doi/10.1289/ehp.10271
  4. Year Published: 1984
    Full Reference: Effects of Aspartame and Glucose on Rat Brain Amino Acids and Serotonin. Yokogoshi H, Roberst CH, Caballero B, Wurtman RJ. American Journal of clinical Nutrition. 1984 July, 40(1):1-7
    Funded By: MIT
    Conclusion/Findings: High aspartame doses can generate major neurochemical changes in rats, especially when consumed along with carbohydrate-containing foods
    Hyperlink to Study: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6204522
  5. Year Published: 1984
    Full Reference: Revelance of Animal Studies to Human Safety. Olney, JW. Neurobehavioral Toxicology and Teratology. 1984; 6:455-462
    Funded By: MIT
    Conclusion/Findings: Excitotoxins, as used in foods today, may produce blood elevations high enough to cause damage to the nervous system of young children, damage which is not detectable at the time of occurrence but which may give rise to subtle disturbances in neuroendocrine function in adolescence and/or adulthood.
    Hyperlink to Study: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6152304
  6. Year Published: 1996
    Full Reference: Increasing Brain Tumor Rates: Is There a Link to Aspartame? Olney JW, Farber NB, Spitznagel E, Robins LN. Journal of Neuropatholgy & Experimental Neurology. 1996 Nov; 55(11):1115-23
    Funded By: NIH
    Conclusion/Findings: Brain tumor incidence in the US implicates the introduction of aspartame into the American diet.
    Hyperlink to Study: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8939194
  7. Year Published: 2000
    Full Reference: Glutamate and Aspartate Impair Memory Retention and Damage Hypothalamic Neurons in Adult Mice. Cheol Hyoung Park, Se Hoon Coi, et al. Toxicology Letters, Vol. 115, Issue 2, May 19, 2000, pp. 117-125
    Funded By: Not known
    Conclusion/Findings: Found that aspartate shortens the memory response, impairs memory retention and damages hypothalamic neurons in mice
    Hyperlink to Study: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6TCR-408BJC1-4&_user=10&_coverDate=05%2F19%2F2000&_rdoc=1&_fmt=high&_orig=search&_origin=search&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view
    =c&_searchStrId=1456058577&
    _rerunOrigin=google&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=395a2fc9d4ef0ffceeea475146341607
    &searchtype=a
  8. Year Published: 2002
    Full Reference: Effect of Aspartame on N-Methyl-D Asparate Sensitive L-(311) Glutamate Binding Sites in Rat Brain Synpatic Membranes, AV Glushakov, DM Dennis, et al. Molecular Psychiatry, 2002, Vol. 7, No. 4, pp. 359-367.
    Funded By: University of Florida
    Conclusion/Findings: Shows that aspartate has a role in causing mental retardation, but the mechanism by which it does that is still unknown.
    Hyperlink to Study: http://www.nature.com/mp/journal/v7/n4/full/4000976a.html
  9. Year Published: 2006
    Full Reference: The Effect of Aspartame Metabolites on Human Erythrocyte Membrane Acetylcholinesterase Activity. Stylianos Tsakiris, Aglaia Giannoulia-Karantana, et al., Pharmacological Research, Volv. 53, Issue 1, Jan. 2006. pp. 1-5.
    Funded By: Not known
    Conclusion/Findings: Found that high concentrations of aspartame can cause neurological symptoms, including memory and learning problems.
    Hyperlink to Study: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16129618
  10. Year Published: 2008
    Full Reference: Direct and Indirect Cellular Effects of Aspartame on the Brain, P Humphries, E Pretorius and H Naude, European Journal of Clinical Nutrition , 2008, 62, 451-462
    Funded By: Not known
    Conclusion/Findings: Asserts that excessive aspartame ingestion might be involved in the pathogenesis of certain mental disorders (DSM-IV-TR 2000) and also in compromised learning and emotional functioning.
    Hyperlink to Study: http://www.nature.com/ejcn/journal/v62/n4/abs/1602866a.html
  11. Year Published: 1986
    Full Reference: Evaluation of Reactions to Food Additives: The Aspartame Experience. MK Bradstock, MK Serdula, JS Marks, RJ Barnard, Nt Crane, PL Remington and FL Trowbridge. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Vol. 43, pp. 464-469, 1986
    Funded By: Not known
    Conclusion/Findings: Identified some case reports in which the symptoms may be attributable to aspartame in commonly-consumed amounts. Headache, mood alterations (anxiety, agitation, irritability, or depression), insomnia, dizziness, and fatigue were the most frequently reported symptoms, with one case of a child in a double-blind test who became hyperactive after consuming products with aspartame.
    Hyperlink to Study: http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/reprint/43/3/464 and http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/content/abstract/43/3/464
  12. Year Published: 1990
    Full Reference: Aspartame: Clinical Update, Potenza DP, el-Mallakh RS, Connecticut Medicine, 1990 Apr;54(4):235-6.
    Funded By: Not known
    Conclusion/Findings: Raises concern that so many reports of headaches, seizures, blindness, and cognitive and behavioral changes with long-term, high-dose aspartame have been reported that health officials need to be concerned.
    Hyperlink to Study: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2667892
  13. Year Published: 1993
    Full Reference: Adverse Reactions to Aspartame: Double-Blind Challenge in Patients from a Vulnerable Population. Ralph G. Walton, Robert Hudak, Ruth J. Green-Waite. Psychiatry. July 1, 1993. Vol. 34, Issue 1, pp. 13-17.
    Funded By: Dept. of Psychiatry Northeastern Ohio,Universities  College of Medicine and University Hospital of Cleveland
    Conclusion/Findings: Found that individuals with mood disorders are particularly sensitive to this artificial sweetener and its use in this population should be discouraged. In the clinical study, the project was halted by the Institutional Review Board after a total of 13 individuals had completed the study because of the severity of reactions within the group of patients with a history of depression
    Hyperlink to Study
    : http://www.biologicalpsychiatryjournal.com/article/0006-3223%2893%2990251-8/abstract
  14. Year Published: 1986
    Full Reference: Seizure and Mania After High Intake of Aspartame
    Funded By: Jamestown General Hospital, Jamestown, New York
    Conclusion/Findings: Case report of a woman who drank in excessive of 1 gallon per day of iced tea sweetened with aspartame, resulting in manic episode and seizure that led to hospitalization.
    Hyperlink to Study: http://psy.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/pdf_extract/27/3/218
  15. Year Published: 1991
    Full Reference: Effect of Aspartame and Protein, Administered in Phenylalanine-Equivalent Doses, on Plasma Neutral Amino Acids, Aspartate, Insulin and Glucose in Man, Svend E. Moller; Pharmacology & Toxicology, Vol. 68, Issue 5, pp. 408-412.
    Funded By: Clinical Research Laboratory, Denmark
    Conclusion/Findings: The study showed that the intake of aspartame in a not unrealistically high dose produced a marked and persistent increase of the availability of Phe to the brain, which was not observed after protein intake. The study indicated, furthermore, that Phe was cleared faster from the plasma after consumption of protein compared with aspartame.
    Hyperlink to Study: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/122214234/abstract
  16. Year Published: 1994
    Full Reference: Effects of Diets High in Sucrose or Aspartame on the Behavior and Cognitive Performance of Children. Mark L. Wolraich, Scott D. Lingren, et al. New England Journal of Medicine, Feb. 3, 1994; pp. 330:301-307
    Funded By: Not known
    Conclusion/Findings: Reported that it is possible that there are some children who respond adversely to sugar or aspartame.
    Hyperlink to Study: http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJM199402033300501#articleResults
  17. Year Published: 1985
    Full Reference: Loss of Intellectual Function in Children with Phenylketonuria After Relaxation of Dietary Phenylalanine Restriction, Margretta R. Seashore, Estelle Friedman, Robert A. Novelly P, Vijaya Bapat MD. Pediatrics vol. 75, No. 2, Feb. 1985, pp. 226-232
    Funded By: Not known
    Conclusion/Findings: Shows decrease in intellectual function in children with PKU who have phenylalnine introduced into their diets.
    Hyperlink to Study: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/abstract/75/2/226
  18. Year Published: 1987
    Full Reference: Aspartame Effects on Brain Serotonin, RI Wurtman, Letter in American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 1987 April; 45(4):799-803
    Funded By: MIT
    Conclusion/Findings: Argues that using rodents to disprove aspartame’s harm to humans is not relevant, and that it reacts more negatively in humans than in mice
    Hyperlink to Study: http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/reprint/45/4/799.pdf
  19. Year Published: 1986
    Full Reference: Acute Effects of Oral or Parenteral Aspartame on Catecholamine Metabolism in Various Regions of Rat Brain, Hidehiko Yokogoshi and Richard J. Wurtman, The Journal of Nutrition, November 1986
    Funded By: MIT
    Conclusion/Findings: Found higher plasma tyrosine and phenylalanine ratios and other effects on the brain.
    Hyperlink to Study: http://jn.nutrition.org/cgi/content/abstract/116/3/356
  20. Year Published: 1992
    Full Reference: Aspartame Exacerbates EEG Spike Wave Discharge in Children with Generalized Absence Epilepsy, PR Camfield, CS Camfield, JM Dooley, et al;
    Funded By: Ontario Ministry of Health
    Conclusion/Findings: Neurology 1992:42:1000
    Hyperlink to Study: http://www.neurology.org/cgi/content/abstract/42/5/1000
  21. Year Published: 1993
    Full Reference: The Effect of Food Chemicals on Cell Aging of Human Diploid Cells in Vitro Culture, Kasamaki A and Urasawa S, The Journal of Toxicological Sciences, 1993 Aug; 18(3):143-53
    Funded By: Toxicological Sciences, 1993 Aug; 18(3):143-53. Sapporo
    Conclusion/Findings: Showed aging of cells when treated with aspartame.
    Hyperlink to Study: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8246307
  22. Year Published: 1994
    Full Reference: Neuropharmacological Evaltuation of Movement Disorders that are Adverse Reactions to Specific Foods Including Aspartame, John W. Gerrard, J Steven Richardson and Jeffrey Donat; International Journal of Neuroscience, 1994, Vol. 76, No. 1-2, pp. 61-69
    Funded By: University of Saskatchewan, Canada
    Conclusion/Findings: Shows that in susceptible individuals, certain foods or additives, including aspartame, can trigger movement disorders through an action on dopamine and other neurotransmitter pathways in the brain.
    Hyperlink to Study: http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.3109/00207459408985992
  23. Year Published: 1995
    Full Reference: Effects of Aspartame on 45 CA Influx and LDH Leakage from Nerve Cells in Culture, Sonnewald U, Unsgard G, Petersen SB; Neuropharmacology and Neurotoxicology, 1995, Vol. 6, Issue 2
    Funded By: Research Council of Norway
    Conclusion/Findings: Showed signs of severe cell damage and other neurological events with aspartame.
    Hyperlink to Study: http://journals.lww.com/neuroreport/Abstract/1995/01000/Effects_of_aspartame_on_45Ca_influx_and_LDH.23.aspx
  24. Year Published: 1996
    Full Reference: Increasing Brain Tumor Rates: Is There A Link to Aspartame? JW Olney, Nuri B Farber, et al.; Journal of Neuropathology & Experimental Neurology, Nov. 1996, Vol. 55, Issue 11
    Funded By: NIH
    Conclusion/Findings: Evidence implicates aspartame as a causative agent of high incidence of brain tumors in aspartame-fed rats.
    Hyperlink to Study: http://journals.lww.com/jneuropath/Abstract/1996/11000/Increasing_Brain_Tumor_Rates__Is_There_a_Link_to.2.aspx
  25. Year Published: 1998
    Full Reference: Formaldehyde Derived from Dietary Aspartame Binds to Tissues Components in Vivo, C. Trocho, R. Pardo, I. Rafecas, et al
    Funded By: University of Barcelona, Spain
    Conclusion/Findings: Showed that aspartame consumption may constitute a hazard because of its contribution to the formation of formaldehyde adducts.
    Hyperlink to Study: http://www.wnho.net/formaldehyde_from_aspartame.pdf
Health Problem: Headache/Migraines
  1. Year Published: 1985
    Full Reference: Aspartame: Possible Effect on Seizure Susceptibility. Wurtman, RJ. Lancet. Vol. 2, no. 8463, 1060 p. 1985
    Funded By: MIT
    Conclusion/Findings: Woman who drank large amounts of Diet Coke and other aspartame-flavored beverages experienced headaches, nausea, visual hallucinations, and a grand-mal seizure.
    Hyperlink to Study: http://md1.csa.com/partners/viewrecord.php?requester=gs&collection=ENV&recid=1354938&q=Aspartame%3A+Possible+Effects+on+Seizure+Suspectibility&
    uid=789675711&setcookie=yes
  2. Year Published: 1987
    Full Reference: The Effect of Aspartame on Migraine Headache. Shirley M. Koehler, Alan Glaros. Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain. Vol 28, Issue 1, Nov. 12, 1987
    Funded By: Not known
    Conclusion/Findings: Ingestion of aspartame by migraine sufferers causes significant increases in headache frequency
    Hyperlink to Study: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/119449495/abstract
  3. Year Published: 1998
    Full Reference: Aspartame as a Dietary Trigger of Headache. Richard B. Lipton, MD, Lawrence C. Newman, MD, Joel S. Cohen, MD, Seymour Solomon, MD. The Journal of Head and Face Pain. Vol. 29, Issue 2, pp. 90-92. Sept. 1998
    Funded By
    Conclusion/Findings: Finds that aspartame may be an important dietary trigger of headache in some people.
    Hyperlink to Study: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/119429393/abstract
  4. Year Published: 1991
    Full Reference: Platelet Glycine, Glutamate and Aspartate in Primary Headache, D'Andrea, G., et al., 1991. Cephalalgia, Vol. 11, pp. 197-200.
    Funded By: Not known
    Conclusion/Findings: High levels of these amino acids were found in patients with migraine with aura compared to normal subjects and other headache groups
    Hyperlink to Study: http://cep.sagepub.com/content/11/4/197.abstract
  5. Year Published: 1997
    Full Reference: Chewing Gum Headaches, Blumenthal, H.J., D.A. Vance, Headache, Volume 37, Number 10, pages 665-666. 1997
    Funded By: Department of Neurology, University of Oklahoma College of Medicine, Tulsa
    Conclusion/Findings: Chewing gum with aspartame provokes headaches
    Hyperlink to Study: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/119166706/abstract
  6. Year Published: 2003
    Full Reference: The Diet Factor in Pediatric and Adolescent Migraine, Millichap JG, Yee MM. Pediatric Neurology, 2003 Jan;28(1):9-15
    Funded By: Not known
    Conclusion/Findings: Aspartame is one of the substances that trigger migraines in children and adolescents
    Hyperlink to Study: http://www.drcordas.com/education/Headaches/1doc.pdf
  7. Year Published: 1994
    Full Reference: Aspartame Ingestion and Headaches: a Randomized Crossover Trial. S. K. Van Den Eeden, PhD, T. D. Koepsell, MD, MPH, W. T. Longstreth, Jr., MD, MPH, G. van Belle, PhD, J. R. Daling, PhD and B. McKnight, PhD, American Academy of Neurology, Neurology. 1994;44:1787
    Funded By: University of Washington
    Conclusion/Findings: This experiment provides evidence that, among individuals with self-reported headaches after ingestion of aspartame, a subset of this group report more headaches when tested under controlled conditions. It appears that some people are particularly susceptible to headaches caused by aspartame and may want to limit their consumption.
    Hyperlink to Study: http://www.neurology.org/cgi/content/abstract/44/10/1787?ijkey=4b59bcfcba6c01af70844762469ca00f7f358c5f&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha
  8. Year Published: 1990
    Full Reference: The Concept of Migraine as a State of Central Neuronal Hyperexcitability, KMA Welch, et all, 1990. Headache, Vol. 8, No. 4, pp 817-828.
    Funded By: Not known
    Conclusion/Findings: Finds that aspartate can cause migraine with aura associated with a state of central neuronal hyperexcitability
    Hyperlink to Study: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1979655
  9. Year Published: 2001
    Full Reference: Migraine MLT-Down: An Unusual Presentation of Migraine in Patients with Aspartame-Triggered Headaches. Lawrence C. Newman, Richard B. Lipton, Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain, Vol. 41, Issue 9, pp. 899-901
    Funded By: The Headache Institute, St. Lukes-Roosevelt Hospital Center, New York
    Conclusion/Findings: Reports that aspartame may trigger headaches in susceptible individuals, and can worsen an ongoing attack of migraine.
    Hyperlink to Study: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/120697481/abstract
  10. Year Published: 1988
    Full Reference: Aspartame as a Dietary Trigger of Headache, Richard B. Lipton, Lawrence C. Newman, Joel S. Cohen, Seymour Solomon, Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain, Vol. 29, Issue 2, pp. 90-92
    Funded By: Department of Neurology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY
    Conclusion/Findings: Reports that some patients with migraines reported aspartame as a trigger three times more often than those with other types of headache.
    Hyperlink to Study: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/119429393/abstract

Health Problem: Increase in hunger, body weight, BMI
  1. Year Published: 1991
    Full Reference: Chen, L. N., and Parham, E. S. “College Students’Use of High-Intensity Sweeteners Is Not Consistently Associated with Sugar Consumption.” J Am Diet Assoc. 91(1991): 686–90
    Funded By: Department of Human and Family Resources at Northern Illinois University
    Conclusion/Findings: In a study of high-intensity artificial sweeteners performed on college students, there was no evidence that artificial sweetener use was associated with a decrease in their overall sugar intake. These results indicate that eating arti­ficial sweeteners simply perpetuates a craving for sweets, and overall sugar consumption is not reduced—leading to further problems controlling your weight
    Hyperlink to Study: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2040783
  2. Year Published: 2005
    Full Reference: “New Analysis Suggests ‘Diet Soda Paradox’ – Less Sugar, More Weight.” UT Health Center San Antonio Press Release. June 14, 2005 · Volume: XXXVIII · Issue: 24
    Funded By: University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio
    Conclusion/Findings: In 2005, data gathered from the 25-year long San Antonio Heart Study also showed that drinking diet soft drinks increased the likelihood of serious weight gain – far more so than regular soda.
According to Sharon Fowler, M.P.H:
“On average, for each diet soft drink our participants drank per day, they were 65 percent more likely to become overweight during the next seven to eight years, and 41 percent more likely to become obese.”
Hyperlink to Study: http://www.uthscsa.edu/hscnews/singleformat2.asp?newID=1539
  1. Year Published: 2004
    Full Reference: “A Pavlovian Approach to the Problem of Obesity,” Davidson, TL and Swithers Se, International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders 2004 Jul;28(7):933-5.
    Funded By: Department of Psychological Science, Ingestive Behavior Research Center, Purdue University
    Conclusion/Findings: Found that rats fed artificially sweetened liquids ate more high-calorie food than rats fed high-caloric sweetened liquids. The researchers believe the experience of drinking artificially sweetened liquids disrupted the animals' natural ability to compensate for the calories in the food.
    Hyperlink to Study:
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=933[page]+AND+2004/07[pdat]+AND+Davidson[author]&cmd=detailssearch
  2. Year Published: 1988
    Full Reference: Uncoupling Sweet Taste and Calories, Comparison of Glucose and Three Intense Sweeteners on Hunger and Food Intake. Peter J. Rogers, Jo-ASnne Carlyle, Andrew J. Hill and John E. Blundell. Physiology & Behavior. Vol. 43; Issue 5, 1988. pp. 547-552
    Funded By: Biopsychology Group, Psychology Dept., University of Leeds, Leeds UK
    Conclusion/Findings: Intense sweeteners can produce significant changes in appetite, with aspartame causing the most pronounced effects.
    Hyperlink to Study: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3200909
  3. Year Published: 1990
    Full Reference: Oral  Stimulation with Aspartame Increases Hunger, Michael G. Tordoff and Annette M. Alleva, Physiology & Behavior, Vol. 47, Issue 3, March 1990; pp. 555-559.
    Funded By: Monell Chemical Senses Center, Philadelphia
    Conclusion/Findings: Showed that aspartame can increase the feeling of hunger
    Hyperlink to Study: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2359769
  1. Year Published: 2010
    Full Reference
    : Gain Weight by “Going Diet?” Artificial Sweeteners and the Neurobiology of Sugar Cravings. Qing Yang, Yale Journal of Biological Medicine, 2010 June; 83(2): 101-108. Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
    Funded By
    : Yale University
    Conclusion/Findings
    : Several large scale prospective cohort studies found positive correlation between artificial sweetener use and weight gain. When matched for initial body mass index (BMI), gender, ethnicity, and diet, drinkers of artificially sweetened beverages consistently had higher BMIs. Similar observations have been reported in children. Artificial sweeteners, precisely because they are sweet, encourage sugar craving and sugar dependence.
    Hyperlink to Study
    : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2892765/?tool=pubmed

Other Health Problems: Multiple symptoms including retinal damage, disruption of odor-associated learning, miscellaneous toxicity problems, elevations in plasma, pre-term delivery, rise in serum methanol
  1. Year Published: 1985
    Full Reference: A Metabolite of Aspartame Inhibits Angiotensin Converting Enzyme. Grobelny D, Galardy RE. Biochemical & BioPhysical Research Communications. 1985: 128(2):960-964.
    Funded By: University of Kentucky
    Conclusion/Findings: Possibility exists that consuming large amounts of aspartame inhibits angiotensin converting enzyme
    Hyperlink to Study: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2986632
  2. Year Published: 1986
    Full Reference: Serum Methanol Concentrations in Rats and in Men after a Single Dose of Aspartame," Davoli, E., et al., 1986. Food and Chemical Toxicology, Vol. 24, No. 3, pp. 187-189
    Funded By: Not known
    Conclusion/Findings: Both treatments caused a temporary rise in serum methanol. Methanol is a highly toxic alcohol commonly found in automobile windshield washer solvent, gas line antifreeze, copy machine fluid, fuel for small stoves, paint strippers, and as an industrial solvent.
    Hyperlink to Study: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3957170
  3. Year Published: 1977
    Full Reference: Effect of a Dipeptide, Aspartame, on Lactic Acid Production in Human Whole Saliva. Y. Mishiro and H. Kaneko. Journal of Dental Research, 1977 56(11):1427
    Funded By: Nippon Dental University, Japan
    Conclusion/Findings: Aspartame affects levels of saliva lactation and pH levels. 
    Hyperlink to Study: http://jdr.sagepub.com/content/56/11/1427.full.pdf
  4. Year Published: 2010
    Full Reference: Intake of Artificially Sweetened Soft Drinks and Risk of Preterm Delivery: a Prospective Cohort Study of 59,334 Danish Pregnant Women. Halldorsson TI, Strom M, Petersen SB, Olsen SF, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, June 30, 2010
    Funded By: Center for Fetal Programming, Division of Epidemiology, Statens serum Institute, Denmark
    Conclusion/Findings: There was an association between intake of artificially sweetened carbonated and noncarbonated soft drinks and an increased risk of preterm delivery.
    Hyperlink to Study: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20592133
  5. Year Published: 1987
    Full Reference: Effects of Oral Aspartame on Plasma Phenylalanine in Humans and Experimental Rodents, RJ Wurtman and TJ Maher. Journal of Neural Transmission, Vol. 70, Nos. 1-2, March 1987, pp. 169-173
    Funded By: MIT
    Conclusion/Findings: Aspartame causes greater elevations in plasma phenylalanine than plasma tyrosine in humans.
    Hyperlink to Study: http://www.springerlink.com/content/l148w94568vt33hw/
  6. Year Published: 1986
    Full Reference: Acute Effects of Aspartame on Systolic Blood Pressure in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats. P.J. Kiritsy and T.J. Maher. Journal of Neural Transmission, Vol 66, No. 2, June 1986, pp 121-128
    Funded By: Neuropharmacology Laboratory, Dept. of Pharmacology, Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Allied Health Science, Boston
    Conclusion/Findings: Aspartame elevates blood and brain tyrosine levels, and cause neurochemical changes that lead to tyrosine-induced drop in blood pressure.
    Hyperlink to Study: http://www.springerlink.com/content/p33231m752721l5x/?p=41116b2cb5284004987aaa24f8a945c9&pi=37
  7. Year Published: 1986
    Full Reference: Aspartame-Induced Uricaria. Anthony Kulczycki Jr., M.D. Annals of Internal Medicine. Feb. 1, 1986. Volv 104. No 2. pp. 207-208
    Funded By: Grant support NIH.
    Conclusion/Findings: Aspartame-induced urticaria confirmed by double-blind challenge.
    Hyperlink to Study: http://www.annals.org/content/104/2/207.extract
  8. Year Published: 1989
    Full Reference: Behavioral Assessment of the Toxicity of Aspartame, Mark D. Holder, Pharmacology Biochemistry & Behavior, Vol. 32, pp. 17-26
    Funded By: Memorial University of Newfoundland
    Conclusion/Findings: Found that aspartame may have adverse effects when intrapeitoneally injected.
    Hyperlink to Study: http://pluto.huji.ac.il/~msrazy/PDF/HolderPBB89.pdf
  9. Year Published: 1989
    Full Reference: Impaired Performance on Odor-Aversion Testing Following Prenatal Aspartame Exposure in the Guinea Pig, Diana L. Dow-Edwards, Louise A. Scribani and Edward P. Riley, Neuurotoxicity and Teratology, Vol. 11, Issue 4, July-August 1989, pp. 413-416
    Funded By: Dept. of Neurosurgery State University, New York
    Conclusion/Findings: These data indicate that aspartame exposure at 500 mg/kg throughout gestation disrupts odor-associative learning in 15-day-old guinea pigs.
    Hyperlink to Study: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2796897
  10. Year Published: 2006
    Full Reference: Aspartame Products as a Potential Danger to Infants, Children & Future Generations, Dr. HJ Roberts, director, Palm Beach Institute for Medical Research
    Funded By: No funding
    Conclusion/Findings: Aspartame causes a variety of disease in children including headaches, convulsions, unexplained visual loss, rashes, asthma, gastrointestinal problems, obesity, marked weight loss, hypoglycemia, diabetes, addiction (probably largely due to the methyl alcohol), hyperthyroidism, and a host of neuropsychiatric features. The latter include extreme fatigue, irritability, hyperactivity, depression, antisocial behavior (including suicide), poor school performance, the deterioration of intelligence, and brain tumors.
    Hyperlink to Study: http://www.rense.com/general70/duut.htm
  11. Year Published: 1986
    Full Reference: Plasma Amino Acid Levels After Single Dose Aspartame Consumption in Phenylketonuria Mild II Hyperphenylalaninemia and Heterozygous State for Phenylkeonuria. The Journal of Pediatrics, Vol. 109, No. 4, pp. 668-671, October 1986.Benjamin Caballero, Barbara E. Mahon, Frances J. Rohr, Harvey L. Levy, and Richard J. Wurtman. M.D
    Funded By: MIT
    Conclusion/Findings: Plasma phenylalanine concentrations may increase to unacceptable levels when patients with PKU on phenylalanine-restricted diets consume aspartame-containing soft drinks or after loading doses of the sweetener
    Hyperlink to Study: http://wurtmanlab.mit.edu/static/pdf/673.pdf
  12. Year Published: 1985
    Full Reference: Aspartame-Induced Granulomatous Panniculitis. Nelson Lee Novick, MD. Annals of Internal Medicine., Vol 102, No. 2, pp. 206-207
    Funded By: Mt. Sinai Medical Center; New York
    Conclusion/Findings: This report describes the first confirmed case of aspartame-induced granulomatous panniculitis
Hyperlink to Study: http://www.annals.org/content/102/2/206.short
  1. Year Published: 1984
    Full Reference: Aspartame: Methanol and the Public Health. Woodrow C.Monte. Journal Applied Nutrition 36(1):42-54
    Funded By
    Conclusion/Findings: Consumption of aspartame sweetened drinks at levels commonly used to replace lost fluid during exercise yields methanol intake between 15 and 100 times normal intakes.
    Hyperlink to Study: http://www.dorway.com/wmonte.txt
  2. Year Published: 1989
    Full Reference: Excitoxins: A Possible New Mechanism for the Pathogenesis of Ischemic Retinal Damage, George H. Bresnick, Archives of Opthalmology, 1989; 107(3):339-341
    Funded By: NIH
    Conclusion/Findings: Reports that aspartame is a possible mechanism to cause retinal damage.
    Hyperlink to Study: http://archopht.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/summary/107/3/339
  3. Year published:  1987
    Full reference: Plasma Amino Acid Concentrations in Normal Adults Administered Aspartame in Capsules or Solution: Lack of Bioequivalence, Lewis D. Stegin, L.J. Filer Jr,  E.F. Bell, and E.E. Ziegler, Metabolism Volume 36, Issue 5 May 1987, Pages 507-512
    Funded by: Supported in part by a grant-in-aid from G.D. Searle
    Conclusion/Findings: The data indicate different plasma phenylalanine and aspartate pharmacokinetics between aspartame in solution and capsule administration of aspartame. Peak plasma phenylalanine levels were significantly higher and were reached significantly earlier when aspartame was administered in solution than when it was administered in capsules. Administration in solution also produced a significantly higher ratio of plasma phenylalanine concentration to the sum of the plasma concentrations of the other large neutral amino acids. Similarly, peak plasma aspartate concentrations were significantly higher and were reached significantly earlier when aspartame was administered in solution.
    Hyperlink to study: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3574137
  4. Year published: 1984
    Full reference: Evaluation of Consumer Complaints Related to Aspartame Use, MK Bradstock, MK Serdula, JS Marks, RJ Barnard, NT Crane, PL Remington and FL Trowbridge, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, November 1984, Vol 43, 464-469
    Funded by: Division of Nutrition, Center for Health Promotion and Education, Centers for Disease Control
    Conclusion/Findings: In some case reports, the symptoms may be attributable to aspartame in commonly-consumed amounts
    Hyperlink to study: http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/content/abstract/43/3/464

Health Problem: Seizures/Convulsions
  1. Year Published: 1987
    Full Reference: Possible Neurologic Effects of Aspartame, a Widely Used Food Additive; Timothy J. Maher and Richard J. Wurtman. Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol. 75, pp 53-57, 1987
    Funded By: MIT and Federal Government
    Conclusion/Findings: Shows that aspartame can induce seizures
    Hyperlink to Study: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1474447/pdf/envhper00434-0053.pdf
  2. Year Published: 1991
    Full Reference: Interspecies and Interstrain Studies on the Increased Susceptibility to Metrazol-Induced Convulsions in Animals given Aspartame, L. Diomede, M. Romano, et al, Milan, Italy, Food and Chemical Toxicology, Vol. 29, Issue 2, 1991; pp. 101-106
    Funded By: Istituto di Richerche, Milan, Italy
    Conclusion/Findings: Showed that they are more susceptible to convulsions when given higher doses of aspartame
    Hyperlink to Study: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2010138
Letters and Other Commentary from Health Sources
  1. Year Published: 1995
    Full Reference: Emerging Facts about Aspartame. Dr. J. Barua, Dr. A Bal. Journal of the Diabetic  Association of India. 1995; Vol. 35, No. 4
    Funded By: No funding
    Conclusion/Findings: Cites numerous studies showing dangers of aspartame
    Hyperlink to Study: http://basichealthinfo.weebly.com/uploads/4/2/5/9/425984/article-on-aspartame.pdf
  2. Year Published: 2004
    Full Reference: Aspartame: An FDA-Approved Epidemic, HJ Roberts, Palm Beach Institute for Medical Research.
    Funded By: No funding
    Conclusion/Findings: Cites thousands of consumer complaints to the FDA that include serious adverse events, that the FDA and CDC refused to acknowledge as substantive.
  3. Year Published: 1991
    Full Reference: Recurrent Vulvovaginitis Resulting from Heavy Dietary Use of Aspartame, Strathman I, The Journal of Reproductive Medicine. 1991 Aug;36(8):572
    Funded By: No funding
    Conclusion/Findings: (This is a letter; title implies that vulvovaginitis was triggered by heavy use of aspartame)
    Hyperlink to Study: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1941798
  4. Year Published: 1985
    Full Reference: Interaction of Aspartame and Carbohydrates in an Eating Disordered Patient. Ferguson A Jr. A Letter in the American Journal of Psychiatry. 1985, Feb. 142(2):271
    Funded By: Not applicable
    Conclusion/Findings: Reports a clinical case where aspartame combined with carbohydrates causes headaches and other symptoms typical of elevated CNS level of tyrosine.
    Hyperlink to Study: http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/article.aspx?articleid=162185
  5. Year Published: 1995
    Full Reference: A Health Alert: Emerging Facts About Aspartame, Dr. J Barua, Dr. A Bal, The Journal of the Diabetic Association of India, 1995: Vol. 35, No. 4
    Funded By: No funding
    Conclusion/Findings: This article summarizes a number of other people’s studies on aspartame.
    Hyperlink to Study: http://smfi.is/media/misc/article-on-aspartame.pdf
  6. Year Published: 1996
    Full Reference: Aspartame as a Cause of Allgeric Reactions, Including Anaphylaxis, Archives of Internal Medicine, 1996; 156(9):1027
    Funded By: Not known
    Conclusion/Findings: Letter arguing that aspartame should have been included as a causative agent of allergic reactions. Cites FDA 7,300-person database of complaints.
    Hyperlink to Study: http://archinte.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/summary/156/9/1027-a
  7. Year Published: Updated April 23, 2008
    Full Reference: Is Aspartame Safe? From an FDA Q&A about aspartame
    Funded By: Not applicable
    Conclusion/Findings: While denying that aspartame is an allergen, the FDA says: However, certain people with the genetic disease phenylketonuria (PKU), those with advanced liver disease, and pregnant women with hyperphenylalanine (high levels of phenylalanine in blood) have a problem with aspartame because they do not effectively metabolize the amino acid phenylalanine, one of aspartame's components. High levels of this amino acid in body fluids can cause brain damage. Therefore, FDA has ruled that all products containing aspartame must include a warning to phenylketonurics that the sweetener contains phenylalanine.
    Hyperlink to Study: http://answers.hhs.gov/questions/3011
  8. Year published:
    Full reference: Scientific Abuse in Methanol/Formaldehyde Research Related to Aspartame
    Funded by: no funding
    Conclusion/Findings: Exposes studies “proving” safety of aspartame as deceptive, erroneous, and based on industry research using outdated plasma methanol measuring tests. No date of publication.
    Hyperlink to Study: http://thetruthaboutstuff.com/pdf/%2847%29%20Scientific%20Abuse%20in%20Methanol.pdf 

Health Problem: Cancer
  1. Year published: 2010
    Full reference:Aspartame administered in feed, beginning prenatally through life span, induces cancers of the liver and lung in male Swiss mice. American Journal of Industrial Medicine December 2010; 53(12): 1197-1206
    Conclusion/Findings:The results of the present study confirm that [aspartame] is a carcinogenic agent in multiple sites in rodents, and that this effect is induced in two species, rats (males and females) and mice (males). Autopsies revealed a significantly increased risk of liver and lung cancer.
    Hyperlink to Study: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20886530
Perhaps, the EFSA did not have time to visit Mercola online for this list. 

With the health of everyone under their jurisdiction, shouldn't the EFSA had made the time?


Source: Erik Millstone

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